Kharkiv is the second largest city of Ukraine after Kiev. According to some historic documents the city was founded in 1654. The origin of the city’s name is still a mystery.
The historical inheritance of the city is comprised of a large number of monuments from different centuries. The city is especially rich in architectural places of interest of nineteenth-twentieth centuries, but there are also outstanding buildings of an earlier period (Pokrovs’kyi and Uspens’kyi Cathedrals, the old building of the university, etc.). There are two trends – modern and constructivism – which are most fully represented. There are a lot interesting museums in Kharkiv:
- Historical Museum
- Museum of Art
- Museum of Nature by National University
- Museum of Literature
and so on!
One of the main attractive part of Kharkov, every time invites lots of tourists, is the Square of Liberty. This is the largest square in Europe and the second largest square in the world. The square is 750m long and 130m wide. Formation of the Square started with the construction of the State Industry Building, also called “Gosprom” which was designed and built in 1925-1928. “Gosprom” is considered to be an outstanding example of world architecture of the first part of the 20th century. The buildings of Kharkov National University placed to the left of the Gosprom. Kharkov national university is one of the oldest and largest higher education institutions founded in 1805.
Pokrovsky Cathedral was built in 1689. It was the first stone building ( and the oldest Kharkiv Building at present) and was used both as a place of worship and a watch tower. The Pokrovsky Cathedral is the valuable monument of the Ukrainian architecture of the second half of the 17th century. This is a typical Ukrainian three-domed church. Its exterior decorations have some elements of Russian architecture showing links between the Russian and Ukrainian cultures. The cathedral was severely damaged in the years of the Second World war. The restoration of the cathedral began in early 1990s and then it has been returned to the Kharkiv Church Eparchy. Now it is an acting orthodox temple.
You can see a lot great monuments in Kharkov, shows different art schools and approaches in Ukrainian imagery. Taras Shevchenko, one of the famous Ukrainian poet, artist and humanist, was presented in 1935. The sculpture group, dedicated to young lovers, was presented 70 years later, and you can see the power of all-winning love!
The Shevchenko Garden is the oldest and biggest green area in the centre of our city. It was planted in 1804 on the initiative of V.Karazin, the founder of the Kharkiv National University. The garden’s central path is a beautiful chestnut-tree alley leading from the Taras Shevchenko Monument to the University building. The garden’s area of 25 hectares has over 15,000 trees and bushes of more than 100 varieties. It also has gigantic oaks, which are over 200 years old.
Kharkiv is situated in the north-eastern part of Ukraine. The altitude above sea level is 200 meters on average.
Main water arteries of the city are rivers: the Kharkiv, the Lopan’, the Udy, the Nemyshlia. They relate to the Don basin. The overall area of water objects of the city (including water objects of industrial value) is 528.4 hectares
The full extent of Kharkiv is:
- from the north to the south – 24.3 km
- from the west to the east -25.2 km.
Kharkiv have made their valuable contribution to space researches, improving of agricultural cultivation systems, as well as genetic researches and other fields of science. They participated in mountaineering to the Everest, designed military machinery – the legendary known tank T-34, that proved to be the best tank of the Second World War, was created in Kharkiv. Or for example, unique three-dimensional radar was designed and set to operation in Kharkiv too. Kharkivites developed cryogenic medicine and carried out microbiological researches being managed by Ilya Mechnikov – a Nobel Prize winner who has discovered the mechanism of immunity.
The beginning of nuclear era was ushered in Kharkiv, when in 1932 the nucleus was split at Kharkiv Institute of Physics for the first time ever.
Kharkiv is the city opened to the world. Kharkiv enjoys a lot of possibilities being a twin city of Bologna, Poznan, Nuremberg and a number of other towns from all over the world.
The city has its own charm – narrow streets with old buildings of different architectural styles and small yards in the city down town, huge and impressive main square, majestic cathedrals and small churches, subway many stations of which can be considered as a separate work of art. Kharkiv has 6 outstanding professional theatres, circus, several museums and many libraries. Kharkiv is a very green city, there are more than 100 parks on it’s territory. Kharkiv is the major student centre of Ukraine. It is a city of 100,000 students and about 30 higher educational institutions. Among them are Kharkiv State University, Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics, Kharkiv National Aviation University, Medical University, University of Culture, National Law Academy and many others. Kharkiv is considered the safest among large cities in Ukraine. Many foreigners come to Kharkiv for business and pleasure.